Explaining climate change science & rebutting global warming misinformation
Scientific skepticism is healthy. Scientists should always challenge themselves to improve their understanding. Yet this isn't what happens with climate change denial. Skeptics vigorously criticise any evidence that supports man-made global warming and yet embrace any argument, op-ed, blog or study that purports to refute global warming. This website gets skeptical about global warming skepticism. Do their arguments have any scientific basis? What does the peer reviewed scientific literature say?
Posted on 28 July 2014 by dana1981
Nigel Lawson is the chairman of the Global Warming Policy Foundation; a political group that regularly releases selective scientific reports about climate change. The organization consistently tries to argue that concerns about global warming – concerns that are based on the full body of scientific evidence – are overblown, which would imply that there's less urgency to solve the climate problem.
In a recent interview with The Independent, Lawson implied that he doesn't consider himself "a climate-change sceptic," but immediately proceeded to deny that the planet is warming, and reject mainstream scientific estimates of the climate sensitivity to the increased greenhouse effect.
There is no global warming to speak of going on at the moment. If you look at the Met Office statistics, that's quite clear. But there could be, there clearly could. If it does happen, there would be a much slower process than the alarmists pretend.
The first statement is untrue on several levels. First, even the Met Office HadCRUT4 estimates of global surface temperatures show we're still in the midst of a warming trend (you can easily check the data for yourself with this tool). Second, the Met Office estimates have a known cool bias due to a lack of coverage in the Arctic, and estimates correcting for that bias show an even larger surface warming trend.
Third and most importantly, the atmosphere only accounts for about 2% of the warming of the planet as a whole. Over 90% of global warming goes into heating the oceans. Studies that account for the warming of the entire global climate have found that it continues unabated. In fact, the planet has built up heat at a rate equivalent to 4 Hiroshima atomic bomb detonations per second over the past 15 years.
Posted on 27 July 2014 by John Hartz
Dana's Climate models accurately predicted global warming when reflecting natural ocean cycles examined a new paper by James Risbey et al that takes a clever approach to evaluating how accurate climate model temperature predictions have been while getting around the noise caused by natural cycles. Needless to say, the article generated a lively and enligtening discussion on its comment thread.
El Niño Watch
- El Niño 2014: Weather Phenomenon Will Arrive Later And Be Weaker Than Initially Expected, Forecasters Say by Maria Gallucci, International Business Times, July 25, 2014
- El Nino Seen by Forecasters Weak or Delayed for Months by Ranjeetha Pakiam, Bloomberg News, July 25, 2014
Toon of the Week
h/t to I heart Climate Scientists
Posted on 26 July 2014 by John Hartz
- 14 concepts that will be obsolete after catastrophic climate change
- Abrupt climate shifts in the past offer warning for future
- Changing human behavior is major factor in selling cleaner cars, curbing congestion
- China’s energy plans will worsen climate change, Greenpeace says
- Extreme weather – Canadians better get used to it
- Forest fires: Climate change’s new normal
- Funds needed to prevent coastal disasters, not just recover from them
- How ignoring climate change could sink the U.S. economy
- States against E.P.A. rule on carbon pollution would gain
- Strategy of climate science denial groups 'extremely successful'
- To cut carbon emissions, give communities rights to forest land
- Tropical fish cause trouble as climate change drives them toward the poles
- Two realities
- U.S. Gulf and Atlantic coasts not prepared for sea-level rise
- What would Jesus do (about climate change)?
14 concepts that will be obsolete after catastrophic climate change
Naomi Oreskes is a professor of the history of science at Harvard University. Erik Conway is a historian of science and technology at the California Institute of Technology. They are the co-authors of “The Collapse of Western Civilization: A View From the Future” (Columbia University Press), from which this article is excerpted.
It’s 2393. A historian is recounting the collapse of Western civilization due to catastrophic climate change. In her anniversary lecture, she explains how the carbon-combustion complex and blind faith in free markets during the late 20th and early 21st centuries conspired to prevent action to curb greenhouse gas emissions, until it was too late to prevent the Mass Migration of 2093 and the inundation of the world’s great coastal cities. But first, she has to introduce a few old concepts and terms that may no longer be familiar to her audience:
14 concepts that will be obsolete after catastrophic climate change, Op-ed by Naomi Oreskes and Erik Conway, Washington Popst, July 25, 2014
Posted on 25 July 2014 by John Hartz
- Attack of the Chicago climate change maggots
- Climate change already having profound impacts on lakes in Europe
- Error discovered in Antarctic sea-ice record
- EU agrees to improve energy efficiency 30% by 2030
- G20 should facilitate international cooperation on climate change
- Global health and climate-change: together bound
- Great Barrier Reef's decline buried in government reports
- Has Antarctic sea ice expansion been overestimated?
- New data on extreme temperatures underscore planet's warming trend
- Slow surface warming since 1998 is “not exceptional”
- Study vindicates climate models accused of ‘missing the pause’
- The carbon taxes we're already paying
- 'The Northern hemisphere is on fire'
- The strange relationship between global warming denial and…speaking English
- The world just had its hottest June on record
Attack of the Chicago climate change maggots
As Washington still fights over whether or not climate change is real, people across the country are already paying costs scientists ascribe to it — sometimes in unexpected places. You might think about climate change in terms of rising sea levels threatening coastal cities. But all over the Midwest, from Chicago to Indianapolis and Milwaukee, residents face just as many difficult issues as changing weather patterns collide with aging infrastructure. The costs — for governments, insurance companies and homeowners — are measured not only in dollars, but in quality of life.
In Chicago over the past century, downpours that force human waste up pipes and into homes — storms that dump at least 1.5 inches of rain in a single day — have struck the city more often. Annual precipitation in the Midwest grew about 20 percent during the past century. Rains of more than 2.5 inches a day are expected to increase another 50 percent in the next 20 years. That means more flooding — and more clean-up costs for people like Burns.
Attack of the Chicago climate change maggots by Danielle Paquette, Washington Post, July 23, 2014
Posted on 24 July 2014 by John Abraham
Around the planet, wildfires are becoming larger and more destructive. This summer, a series of wildfires enveloped large areas of Canada’s Boreal forest, blanketing western North America with smoke. One key question is, do these fires have an effect on climate by darkening Arctic ice with layers of soot, causing more sunlight to be absorbed by the ice?
For the second year, the Dark Snow Project science team has taken to the ice on Greenland to investigate the forces driving Greenland's ice loss. They are looking at the causes of surface darkening on the ice sheet that's been observed over the last decade.
The Dark Snow Project is a collaborative effort between a multidisciplinary, international group of experts. The driving questions are, what's causing the steady darkening of the Greenland Ice Sheet that has been observed in the past decade? Is it an important cause of ice melt? Does it represent yet another climate "feedback" which is accelerating global change?
Posted on 23 July 2014 by John Abraham
It's tempting to view global warming on, well, a global scale. However, when we think about how climate change affects human and biological systems, it's often the local impacts that matter most. We want to know how things are going to change where we live, not on some abstract global scale.
In the past, local impacts have been very difficult for scientists to assess. One of our most useful tools, climate computer models, are best used to predict how the entire globe will change. These computer models work by subdividing the world into millions of elements or grid boxes. Equations describing conservation of mass, energy, and other processes are solved at each grid box. Then, the grid boxes are assembled to recreate the geometry of the entire Earth system. Just like a puzzle image takes shape when the pieces are brought together, so to the climate takes shapes as the grid boxes are brought together.
But, the weak link in this process is that with today’s computer power, the grid boxes are too large to give a true picture of local variations. We say the grid is “coarse” at the regional scale. Scientists have figured out a clever way around this problem; a way to use coarse global climate programs to get regional information.
The method, which is often called downscaling, was a central tool in a paper just published by a team of scientists including Dr. Matthew Thomas and Dr. Michael Mann, both from Penn State University. This study tackled the problem of malaria – a devastating disease that causes enormous economic and human costs around the world. It is a disease I’ve seen firsthand in my travel and work in east Africa.
Posted on 22 July 2014 by BaerbelW , Anne-Marie Blackburn
Understanding what is happening in the oceans is crucial since 90% of global warming is going there and attempts to measure temperatures at various depths go back to the 1960s. But, what does this Weddell seal have to do with this and what is it wearing on its head?
To answer these questions we have to backtrack a bit and look at the recent history of data collection used to find out what is happening in the oceans.
How has the data for charts like the ocean heat content been collected?
The underlying data about the temperature at different depths has been collected since the 1960s via expendable bathythermographs (XBT) and mechanical bathythermographs (MBT) deployed from ships travelling across the high seas. These measurements have been rather confined to the shipping lanes most travelled and therefore leave out a lot of the actual ocean surface, including much of the polar regions as these are not (yet!) on any regular shipping lines.
At the beginning of the 21st century, a network of autonomous Argo-floats started to be deployed all across the ocean and there are currently 3,600 floats providing around 100,000 measurements per year.
Posted on 21 July 2014 by dana1981
Predicting global surface temperature changes in the short-term is a challenge for climate models. Temperature changes over periods of a decade or two can be dominated by influences from ocean cycles like El Niño and La Niña. During El Niño phases, the oceans absorb less heat, leaving more to warm the atmosphere, and the opposite is true during a La Niña.
We can't yet predict ahead of time how these cycles will change. The good news is that it doesn't matter from a big picture climate perspective, because over the long-term, temperature influences from El Niño and La Niña events cancel each other out. However, when we examine how climate model projections have performed over the past 15 years or so, those natural cycles make a big difference.
A new paper led by James Risbey just out in Nature Climate Change takes a clever approach to evaluating how accurate climate model temperature predictions have been while getting around the noise caused by natural cycles. The authors used a large set of simulations from 18 different climate models (from CMIP5). They looked at each 15-year period since the 1950s, and compared how accurately each model simulation had represented El Niño and La Niña conditions during those 15 years, using the trends in what's known as the Niño3.4 index.
Each individual climate model run has a random representation of these natural ocean cycles, so for every 15-year period, some of those simulations will have accurately represented the actual El Niño conditions just by chance. The study authors compared the simulations that were correctly synchronized with the ocean cycles (blue data in the left frame below) and the most out-of-sync (grey data in the right frame) to the observed global surface temperature changes (red) for each 15-year period.
Posted on 20 July 2014 by John Hartz
Dana's Rupert Murdoch doesn't understand climate change basics, and that's a problem understandably generated the most comments of the articles posted on SkS during the past week. Is global warming causing extreme weather via jet stream waves? by John Abraham attracted the second highest number of comments. Both articles are very topical and informative.
El Niño Watch
- A Super-Strong El Niño Is Now Off the Table. Here’s What That Means by Eric Holthaus, Slate, July 17, 2014
- El Nino may not bring needed rains to parched California by Sharon Bernstein, Reuters, July 18, 2014
- Strong El Nino Seen Unlikely by Australia as Pacific Cools, Bloomberg, July 15, 2014
Toon of the Week
Source: Jerry Brown faces climate change facts while GOP chases moonbeams by David Horsey, Los Angeles Times, May 21, 2014
Posted on 19 July 2014 by John Hartz
- America's oil consumption is rising, not falling, outpacing China's
- Biodiversity hotspots get hotter (and that’s not good)
- Carbon price repeal a victory for fossil fuels, ideologues and climate science denial
- Climate scientists see 'very rapid declines' in annual NOAA report
- Eight ways climate change is making the world more dangerous
- Environmentalists denounce repeal of Australia’s carbon tax
- Germany sets example, pledges $1 billion to U.N. climate fund
- NY Times’ climate skeptic debacle: How a new profile sets back science
- Scientists take issue with Rupert Murdoch’s remarks on climate change
- Six months in and sizzling California sets record
- Tar Sands threaten world’s largest boreal forest
- 'Tornadoes of fire' in North West Territories linked to climate change
- U.S. House bans the Dept of Energy from acknowledging climate change
- What wildfires in the Northwest Territories say about climate change
- When climate change floods your heart
America's oil consumption is rising, not falling, outpacing China's
U.S. oil demand reversed course in dramatic fashion in 2013, as the nation's growth in crude consumption outpaced perennial leader China for the first time since 1999, according to oil company BP's annual compendium of world energy statistics.
The U.S. increase follows two years of declines, and dampens hopes that the world's largest oil guzzler was permanently reining in its appetite for crude. The nation's oil use rose by 400,000 barrels per day to a daily draw of 18.9 million barrels; China's oil consumption grew by 390,000 barrels a day, to 10.8 million barrels a day, according to the BP figures released last month.
America's Oil Consumption Is Rising, Not Falling, Outpacing China's by Elizabeth Douglass, InsideClimate News, July 14, 2014
Posted on 18 July 2014 by John Hartz
This article is a reprint of a news release posted by the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) on July 17, 2014.
Increases in temperature, sea level and CO2 observed; Southern Hemisphere warmth and Super Typhoon Haiyan among year’s most notable events
In 2013, the vast majority of worldwide climate indicators—greenhouse gases, sea levels, global temperatures, etc.—continued to reflect trends of a warmer planet, according to the indicators assessed in the State of the Climate in 2013 report, released online today by the American Meteorological Society.
Scientists from NOAA’s National Climatic Data Center in Asheville, N.C., served as the lead editors of the report, which was compiled by 425 scientists from 57 countries around the world (highlights, visuals, full report). It provides a detailed update on global climate indicators, notable weather events, and other data collected by environmental monitoring stations and instruments on air, land, sea, and ice.
“These findings reinforce what scientists for decades have observed: that our planet is becoming a warmer place,” said NOAA Administrator Kathryn Sullivan, Ph.D. “This report provides the foundational information we need to develop tools and services for communities, business, and nations to prepare for, and build resilience to, the impacts of climate change.”
The report uses dozens of climate indicators to track patterns, changes, and trends of the global climate system, including greenhouse gases; temperatures throughout the atmosphere, ocean, and land; cloud cover; sea level; ocean salinity; sea ice extent; and snow cover. These indicators often reflect many thousands of measurements from multiple independent datasets. The report also details cases of unusual and extreme regional events, such as Super Typhoon Haiyan, which devastated portions of Southeast Asia in November 2013.
- Greenhouse gases continued to climb: Major greenhouse gas concentrations, including carbon dioxide (CO2), methane and nitrous oxide, continued to rise during 2013, once again reaching historic high values. Atmospheric CO2 concentrations increased by 2.8 ppm in 2013, reaching a global average of 395.3 ppm for the year. At the Mauna Loa Observatory in Hawaii, the daily concentration of CO2 exceeded 400 ppm on May 9 for the first time since measurements began at the site in 1958. This milestone follows observational sites in the Arctic that observed this CO2threshold of 400 ppm in spring 2012.
- Warm temperature trends continued near the Earth’s surface: Four major independent datasets show 2013 was among the warmest years on record, ranking between second and sixth depending upon the dataset used. In the Southern Hemisphere, Australia observed its warmest year on record, while Argentina had its second warmest and New Zealand its third warmest.
- Sea surface temperatures increased: Four independent datasets indicate that the globally averaged sea surface temperature for 2013 was among the 10 warmest on record. El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO)-neutral conditions in the eastern central Pacific Ocean and a negative Pacific decadal oscillation pattern in the North Pacific. The North Pacific was record warm for 2013.
- Sea level continued to rise: Global mean sea level continued to rise during 2013, on pace with a trend of 3.2 ± 0.4 mm per year over the past two decades.
- The Arctic continued to warm; sea ice extent remained low: The Arctic observed its seventh warmest year since records began in the early 20th century. Record high temperatures were measured at 20-meter depth at permafrost stations in Alaska. Arctic sea ice extent was the sixth lowest since satellite observations began in 1979. All seven lowest sea ice extents on record have occurred in the past seven years.
- Antarctic sea ice extent reached record high for second year in a row; South Pole station set record high temperature: The Antarctic maximum sea ice extent reached a record high of 7.56 million square miles on October 1. This is 0.7 percent higher than the previous record high extent of 7.51 million square miles that occurred in 2012 and 8.6 percent higher than the record low maximum sea ice extent of 6.96 million square miles that occurred in 1986. Near the end of the year, the South Pole had its highest annual temperature since records began in 1957.
- Tropical cyclones near average overall / Historic Super Typhoon: The number of tropical cyclones during 2013 was slightly above average, with a total of 94 storms, in comparison to the 1981-2010 average of 89. The North Atlantic Basin had its quietest season since 1994. However, in the Western North Pacific Basin, Super Typhoon Haiyan – the deadliest cyclone of 2013 – had the highest wind speed ever assigned to a tropical cyclone, with one-minute sustained winds estimated to be 196 miles per hour.
Posted on 17 July 2014 by John Abraham
As I sit here in a northern part of the United States (Minnesota), a rare summer arctic blast barrels down from Canada on what otherwise is one of the warmest days of the year. Global warming? I could use some global warming today, people are saying.
Not only is this a teachable moment, but it coincides with a major new study on climate connections. First, let’s see the current jet stream. It is wildly undulating, first swinging up into northern Canada before curving back and plunging into the central United States.
Typically, the jet stream represents a separation between cold arctic air and warmer southern air. If you are north of the jet stream, temperatures are cold whereas south of the jet stream it's more likely to be warm.
With this in mind, and the jet stream shown, you can almost predict the temperature pattern in the next image. The match is incredible and it is clear that my Minnesota cold-blast is more than balanced out by near 90°F temperatures in northern Canada. With all of this, I want to talk about a new study that looks at these fluctuations on a longer term.
Posted on 16 July 2014 by John Hartz
This article is a reprint of a press release posted by the World Meterological Organization on July 11, 2014.
Better disaster data enables better decisions
Weather, climate and water-related disasters are on the rise worldwide, causing loss of life and setting back economic and social development by years, if not decades. From 1970 to 2012, 8 835 disasters, 1.94 million deaths, and US$ 2.4 trillion of economic losses were reported globally as a result of hazards such as droughts, extreme temperatures, floods, tropical cyclones and related health epidemics, according to a new report.
The Atlas of Mortality and Economic Losses from Weather, Climate and Water Extremes 1970-2012 describes the distribution and impacts of weather, climate, and water-related disasters and highlights measures to increase resilience. It is a joint publication of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters (CRED) of the Catholic University of Louvain (UCL) in Belgium.
The Atlas aims to provide decision-makers with actionable information for protecting life and property.
It is also highlights the need for stronger efforts to report, standardize and analyze data on weather, climate, and water-related hazards to improve understanding of disasters and reinforce the platform for prevention.
Posted on 15 July 2014 by John Hartz
Deep Decarbonization Pathways Project (DDPP) Presents Interim Report to UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-Moon, a reprint of a UN press release, generated the most commets of the articles posted on SkS during the past week - illustrating once again that SkS readers and team members have deep and abiding perspectives about what should be done in order to prevent dangerous climate change The interim report supports the UN Climate Summit scheduled for Sep 23, 2014. The full DDPP report will be presented in the spring of 2015. [Click here to access the Executive Summary of the interim report.]
Posted on 14 July 2014 by dana1981
Rupert Murdoch has a vast media empire. In the UK, his News Corp assets include The Times and The Sun. In the USA, he has Fox News, The New York Post, and The Wall Street Journal. In Australia, he's got The Australian and a multitude of local newspapers.
Many of Murdoch's news outlets are also among the worst when it comes to getting climate science wrong and disseminating climate myths and misinformation. Inaccurate media coverage is in turn the primary reason why the public is so misinformed about global warming.
In a recent Sky News interview, Rupert Murdoch expressed his own views about global warming and climate change.
Murdoch's most inaccurate statement was,
In terms of the world's temperature going up, the worst, the most alarmist things have said ... 3°C in 100 years. At the very most one of those will come from man-made, be man-made.
In reality, the worst case scenario considered by the 2014 IPCC report projects about 4°C global surface warming over the next century (on top of the nearly 1°C that we've already caused). All of that 4°C warming would be human-caused. The best case scenario would involve about 1°C global surface warming over the next century, and that's if we take serious action to reduce carbon pollution.
Deep Decarbonization Pathways Project (DDPP) Presents Interim Report to UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-Moon
Posted on 11 July 2014 by John Hartz
This article is a reprint of a press release posted by the UN's Sustainable Development Solutions Network on July 8, 2014.
STUDY CHARTS PATH TO LOW CARBON IN MAJOR EMITTING COUNTRIES
First Global Cooperative Effort Aims to Support UN Climate Talks
A report for the United Nations released today shows how the major emitting countries can cut their carbon emissions by mid-century in order to prevent dangerous climate change. The report, produced cooperatively by leading research institutes in 15 countries, is the first global cooperative program to identify practical pathways to a low-carbon economy by 2050. The Deep Decarbonization Pathways Project (DDPP) interim report will be presented in a briefing today to UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-Moon, and tomorrow/the day after to the French government, as host of the 2015 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) climate conference. The interim report supports the UN Climate Summit on September 23, 2014. The full DDPP report will be presented in the spring of 2015.
“The Deep Decarbonization Pathways Project report is an effort to demonstrate how countries can contribute to achieving the globally agreed target of limiting global temperature rise to below 2 degrees,” said Secretary-General Ban. “Ambitious national action is critical to averting dangerous climate change. This report shows what is possible.”
Posted on 10 July 2014 by John Cook
Yale University and George Mason University are conducting some of the pioneering research into the efficacy of consensus messaging. Their latest study in Climatic Change tested the effect of three different ways to communicate the scientific consensus: a simple text message, a pie-chart and metaphors (e.g., likening the 97% consensus on climate change to a 97% consensus among doctors). They found that the most effective messages in increasing awareness of consensus were the simple text message and pie-chart. The most interesting result was that pie-charts were most effective on Republicans:
Pie-charts get a bad rap among science communicators (and often not without reason), but in this particular instance, the pie-chart is quite effective in communicating the overwhelming agreement among climate scientists. When SJI Associates designed The Consensus Project website, they used the 97% pie-chart as the website logo. It seems they knew what they were doing (I also like the visual double-entendre of the pie-chart forming a C). They used the same imagery in the shareable infographics communicating the results of our 97% consensus paper:
Posted on 9 July 2014 by Rob Painting
El Niño on the Wane?.......
The intensity of El Niño is determined by a number of factors but, as discussed in the previous 2014 El Niño post, the size of the equatorial warm water volume (WWV) anomaly is a crucial ingredient because the heat from this warm water volume is discharged to the atmosphere as El Niño matures.
Earlier this year we saw the largest March WWV anomaly ever recorded. This warm anomaly exceeded even that of the monster El Niño of 1997-1998, raising fears of a similarly devastating El Niño in 2014. Fortunately, the chances of a repeat of 1997-1998 appear to have greatly diminished. The atmosphere needs to provide reinforcement in order for El Niño to fully take hold, and although there have been brief episodes of westerly wind bursts, which allow near-surface warm ocean currents to flow back toward the east and shut off the upwelling of cold water there, these have not been of sufficient strength, or persistence, to shut off the upwelling entirely. As a result, the anomalous pool of warm water sitting beneath the eastern Pacific Ocean has been eaten away (moved out of the equatorial region) and is now substantially smaller than before - see Figure 2.
Posted on 8 July 2014 by howardlee
In the face of America’s slumping education performance in Science (currently ranked 23rd in the world), US educators have been trying to adopt new science education standards. But the state-by-state adoption of the science standards has been slow, held up by anti-science sentiments in state legislatures that do not agree with teaching evolution or climate change.
In Wyoming the climate contrarians succeeded in blocking the teaching of accepted science.
Now New Jersey is the latest state to debate the adoption of the new curriculum. Stunningly enough this is not a sure thing in this state, despite it being home to Edison and Bell Labs (birthplace of the transistor and the radio telescope), incubator of many Nobel prizes and host to most major pharmaceutical companies, and of course several fine universities including Rutgers and Princeton (Nash’s and Einstein’s alma mater).
According to "Education Week," an American education news site, "External political influence that has an issue with human-induced climate change or evolution," may yet prevent New Jersey’s adoption of the new science standards.
In response, "Climate Parents" has launched a campaign to petition the New Jersey State Board of Education. "Loud fringe groups have gone to war against our children’s right to learn about climate change." said John Friedrich of Climate Parents. "They’ve launched coordinated attacks in each state that has considered adopting Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), a set of K-12 education standards meant to ensure that kids learn 21st century science, including climate science."
Posted on 7 July 2014 by dana1981
David Rose and The Mail on Sunday produce the most reliable global warming journalism, in the sense that they can be relied upon to consistently misrepresent climate science. Their latest piece focuses on Antarctic sea ice.
You might wonder why we should particularly care about Antarctic sea ice. The answer is that it provides a nice distraction from rapidly declining Arctic sea ice, glaciers around the world, the Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets, the warming oceans, the warming atmosphere, and so on. Antarctic sea ice has bucked these trends by modestly increasing in extent and volume.
To put this increase in context, the volume of Antarctic sea ice has risen by about 7.5% since 1992, according to a recent study. The volume of Arctic sea ice, on the other hand, has declined by about 75% since 1980. Antarctica has been gaining about 30 cubic kilometers (km3) of sea ice volume per year, while the Arctic has been losing 10 times as much – 300 km3 per year.